The word fruit comprehend commonly various types of edible fruit including some of them that are not properly fruits such as tomatoes, depending on their alimentary use.
Composition of fruits
The chemical composition of the fruit depends on the type of fruit and its maturation.
Water: Between 80% and 95% is water.
Carbohydrates: Between 5% and 20% is made up of carbohydrates. The content may vary from 20% in the banana by up to 5% in melon, watermelon and strawberries. Other fruits have an average of 10%. The carbohydrate content can change depending on the species and on the time of collection. The carbohydrates are usually simple sugars such as fructose, sucrose and glucose, easily digested and rapidly absorbed. In unripe fruit there is the presence of starch, such as in bananas; the maturation transforms it into simple sugars.
Fiber: Approximately 2% of the fruits contain fiber, mainly pectin and hemicelluloses, mainly contained in the skin on where you can find some traces of contaminants such as pesticides, difficult to remove them if not peel the fruit. Soluble fibers such as pectin gelling or form of viscous mixtures of water (which it depends on ripeness) play an important role for the texture of the fruit.
Vitamins: like Carotene, vitamin C, B-complex. According to the content of vitamins, there are two important groups: Rich in vitamin C, containing 50 mg/100 such as citrus, melons, strawberries and kiwi. Rich in vitamin A and carotenoids, such as apricots, peaches and plums. The fruit is also rich of mineral salts, such as potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium.
Protein and Fat: nitrogen compounds such as proteins and lipids are scarce in the edible part of the fruit, on the other hand are present in the seeds. The fat could vary between 0.1 and 0.5%, while the protein may be between 0.1 and 1.5%. Avocado, for example contains oleic acid which is a fatty acid, monounsaturated whereas the coconut is rich in saturated fats such as palmitic acid.
Calories: The calorific value is determined by its sugar concentration, ranging between 30-80 kcal/100g. There are also fruits rich in fats, like avocado – containing 16% fat – and the coconut, which can reach 30%. The high amount of lipids means high energy value, about 200 grams kcal/100ml. But most of the fruits have low calorie in comparison with its weight.
Perfumes and pigments: The fruit contains acid and other aromatic substances which, together with the high water content make them refreshing. The taste of each fruit is determined by the content of acids, sugars and other flavorings: malic acid predominates in the apple, citric acid in oranges, lemons and tangerines and tartaric acid in grapes. Therefore, colorings, flavorings and astringent phenolic compounds, even in very low concentrations, have a crucial influence on organoleptic testing. Food use Both fresh and dried fruits are used as food, in jams or other kind of preserves.
The fruit is useful for many dishes, especially sweets. If fresh, in general, is eaten after a meal, although this is more of just a common habit. It could also replace your afternoon snacks. The consumption of fruit, in the Mediterranean countries, is traditionally higher than in the Nordic countries. Curiosity It is scientifically proved that an abundant consumption of fresh fruits (and vegetables), considerably reduces the occurrence of many diseases.